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Title: Ysbryd y Mwynwyr - Spirit of the Miners
Chimney, TaliesinYstrad EinionWheelhouse, Bryn yr Arian

Mining Terms

Adit: A horizontal tunnel driven into the hill side for access or drainage.

Backfill: Waste rock packed into a disused passage or stope also known as deads.

Barracks: Buildings built near a number of remote mines for housing miners during the working week.

Blackjack: A blende of zinc and sulphur zinc ore.

Buddle: A machine for separating finely crushed ore from gangue.

Captain: An overseer or mine manager.

Crusher: Machinery used for crushing ore.

Dressing: Processing of separating ore from waste material.

Drift: A level driven from one part of the mine to the other which could also follow a mineral vein.

Engine Shaft: A shaft fitted with pumping equipment.

Fathom: Old unit of measurement used by the miners. 1 fathom = 6 feet originally a man's arm span from fingertip to fingertip.

Firesetting: Ancient method of breaking up rock by heating with fire and then quenching it with water.

Gangue:Undesirable material e.g. rock and quartz enclosing the valuable mineral.

Hammer Stones:Large pebbles used to crush ore in the bronze age.

Hushing: Dam installed blocking a stream or reservoir at the top of the hill and when enough water was captured it would be released to scour the topsoil and scrub from the hillside.

Kibble: Bucket made from wood or metal used to raise ore from the mine.

Launder: A wooden trough for conveying water.

Leat: Man made surface channel for conveying water, sometimes over long distances.

Level: Tunnel driven horizontally for access or drainage.

Miners Trail: Route used by the Miners to go to and from work.

Ochre: Yellow ore used to give the colour in paint

Opencut: Quarry-like excavations created by the removing of ore that lies close to the surface.

Ore: The mineral as it comes from the mine.

Powder House: Store for keeping explosives also known as a magazine.

Potter's Ore: Poor quality galena containing very little ore.

Rise: An underground shaft driven upwards.

Shaft: Vertical entrance leading into the mine.

Smelting: To extract a metal from ore by heating.

Spoil: Area of waste rock dumped as a result of mining activity - also known as dumps/tips.

Stope: Underground cavity created by the removal of ore.

Vein: Fissures in rock that have been filled with mineral deposits.

Washing Place: Place to wash the ore.

Whim: A windlass worked by horses, steam or water power used for raising ore.

Winch: Portable device for raising loads, either hand, steam or air powered.

Winze: Underground shaft driven downwards.

Below is an illustration outlining some of the mining terms listed above.

Illustration of Mining Terms